Risk factors for central serous chorioretinopathy Review article

Main Article Content

Maciej Gawęcki

Abstract

Central serous chorioretinopathy is a well-described ocular disorder affecting primarily young individuals. As chronic forms of central serous chorioretinopathy are often leading to significant visual impairment, potential risk factors for its development are constantly analyzed in numerous studies. Review of available research shows that predominant risk factors for central serous chorioretinopathy include male gender, steroid intake, pregnancy, Cushing syndrome, chronic or acute stress, maladaptive personal traits, and increased choroidal thickness. Other factors, such as hypertension, gastric ulcer and reflux or genetic predispositions probably increase the risk of central serous chorioretinopathy onset, but its quantification remains the question of debate.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
1.
Gawęcki M. Risk factors for central serous chorioretinopathy. Ophthatherapy [Internet]. 2023Mar.31 [cited 2024Jul.17];10(1):34-1. Available from: https://www.journalsmededu.pl/index.php/ophthatherapy/article/view/2743
Section
Conservative treatment

References

1. Daruich A, Matet A, Marchionno L et al. Acute central serous chorioretinopathy: Factors Influencing Episode Duration. Retina. 2017; 37(10): 1905-5.
2. Gawęcki M, Jaszczuk A, Grzybowski A. Short Term Presence of Subretinal Fluid in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Affects Retinal Thickness and Function. J Clin Med. 2020; 9(11): 3429.
3. Gawęcki M, Grzybowski A. Ganglion Cell Loss in the Course of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Ophthalmol Ther. 2023; 12(1): 517-33.
4. Mrejen S, Balaratnasingam C, Kaden TR et al. Long-term Visual Outcomes and Causes of Vision Loss in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Ophthalmology. 2019; 126(4): 576-88.
5. Gawęcki M, Jaszczuk-Maciejewska A, Jurska-Jaśko A et al. Impairment of visual acuity and retinal morphology following resolved chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. BMC Ophthalmol. 2019; 19(1): 160.
6. Haimovici R, Koh S, Gagnon DR et al.; Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Case-Control Study Group. Risk factors for central serous chorioretinopathy: a case-control study. Ophthalmology. 2004; 111(2): 244-9.
7. Spaide RF, Campeas L, Haas A et al. Central serous chorioretinopathy in younger and older adults. Ophthalmology. 1996; 103(12): 2070-9.
8. Tittl MK, Spaide RF, Wong D et al. Systemic findings associated with central serous chorioretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999; 128(1): 63-8.
9. Kitzmann AS, Pulido JS, Diehl NN et al. The incidence of central serous chorioretinopathy in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1980-2002. Ophthalmology. 2008; 115(1): 169-73.
10. Schellevis RL, van Dijk EHC, Breukink MB et al. Exome sequencing in families with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2019; 7(4): e00576.
11. van Dijk EHC, Schellevis RL, Breukink MB et al. Familial central serous chorioretinopathy. Retina. 2019; 39(2): 398-407.
12. Schellevis RL, van Dijk EHC, Breukink MB et al. Role of the Complement System in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: A Genome- Wide Association Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2018; 136(10): 1128-36.
13. Mohabati D, Schellevis RL, van Dijk EHC et al. Genetic risk factors in acute central serous chorioretinopathy. Retina. 2019; 39(12): 2303-10.
14. Mohabati D, Schellevis RL, van Dijk EHC et al. Genetic risk factors in severe, nonsevere and acute phenotypes of central serous chorioretinopathy. Retina. 2020; 40(9): 1734-41.
15. de Jong EK, Breukink MB, Schellevis RL et al. Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy is associated with genetic variants implicated in age-related macular degeneration. Ophthalmology. 2015; 122(3): 562-70.
16. Schubert C, Pryds A, Zeng S et al. Cadherin 5 is regulated by corticosteroids and associated with central serous chorioretinopathy. Hum Mutat. 2014; 35(7): 859-67.
17. Rim TH, Kim HS, Kwak J et al. Association of Corticosteroid Use With Incidence of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy in South Korea. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2018; 136(10): 1164-9.
18. Fardin B, Weissgold DJ. Central serous chorioretinopathy after inhaled steroid use for post-mycoplasmal bronchospasm. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002; 86(9): 1065-6.
19. Chan LY, Adam RS, Adam DN. Localized topical steroid use and central serous retinopathy. J Dermatolog Treat. 2016; 27(5): 425-6.
20. Balakrishnan S, Apsingi S, Manjure SB. Sudden loss of visual acuity following intra-articular steroid injection in to the knee joint: a case report. Cases J. 2008; 1(1): 428.
21. McCannel TA, Chmielowski B, Finn RS et al. Bilateral subfoveal neurosensory retinal detachment associated with MEK inhibitor use for metastatic cancer. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014; 132(8): 1005-9.
22. Michael JC, Pak J, Pulido J et al. Central serous chorioretinopathy associated with administration of sympathomimetic agents. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003; 136(1): 182-5.
23. Asharari KS, Alali NM, Magliyah MS et al. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Following Oral Use of Adulterated Honey Mixed with Tadalafil: A Case Report. Int Med Case Rep J. 2021; 14: 773-6.
24. Mohammadpour M, Khodaparast M, Khorrami-Nejad M. Central serous chorioretinopathy following ingestion of sildenafil citrate. Clin Optom (Auckl). 2019; 11: 73-5.
25. Schellevis RL, Altay L, Kalisingh A et al. Elevated Steroid Hormone Levels in Active Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2019; 60(10): 3407-13.
26. Zakir SM, Shukla M, Simi ZU et al. Serum cortisol and testosterone levels in idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2009; 57(6): 419-22.
27. van Haalen FM, van Dijk EHC, Dekkers OM et al. Cushing’s Syndrome and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Hyperactivity in Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018; 9: 39.
28. van Dijk EH, Dijkman G, Biermasz NR et al. Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy as a presenting symptom of Cushing syndrome. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2016; 26(5): 442-8.
29. Brinks J, van Haalen FM, van Rijssen TJ et al. Central serous chorioretinopathy in active endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. Sci Rep. 2021; 11(1): 2748.
30. Wang E, Chen S, Yang H et al. Choroidal thickening and pachychoroid in cushing syndrome: Correlation With Endogenous Cortisol Level. Retina. 2019; 39(2): 408-14.
31. Sunness JS, Haller JA, Fine SL. Central serous chorioretinopathy and pregnancy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993; 111(3): 360-4.
32. Gawecki M, Groszewska E. Central serous chorioretinopathy during pregnancy complicated by systemic hypertension – a case report. Klin Oczna. 2016; 117(4): 256-9.
33. Behar-Cohen F, Zhao M. Corticosteroids and the retina: a role for the mineralocorticoid receptor. Curr Opin Neurol. 2016; 29(1): 49-54.
34. Bousquet E, Dhundass M, Lehmann M et al. Shift Work: A Risk Factor for Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2016; 165: 23-8.
35. Gelber GS, Schatz H. Loss of vision due to central serous chorioretinopathy following psychological stress. Am J Psychiatry. 1987; 144(1): 46-50.
36. Ji Y, Li M, Zhang X et al. Poor Sleep Quality Is the Risk Factor for Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. J Ophthalmol. 2018; 2018: 9450297.
37. Spahn C, Wiek J, Burger T et al. Psychosomatic aspects in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2003; 87(6): 704-8.
38. Bazzazi N, Ahmadpanah M, Akbarzadeh S et al. In patients suffering from idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy, anxiety scores are higher than in healthy controls, but do not vary according to sex or repeated central serous chorioretinopathy. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015; 11: 1131-6.
39. Sahin A, Bez Y, Kaya MC et al. Psychological distress and poor quality of life in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy. Semin Ophthalmol. 2014; 29(2): 73-6.
40. Genovese G, Meduri A, Muscatello MRA et al. Central Serous Chorioretinopathy and Personality Characteristics: A Systematic Review of Scientific Evidence over the Last 10 Years (2010 to 2020). Medicina (Kaunas). 2021; 57(6): 628.
41. Kim YK, Woo SJ, Park KH et al. Association of Central Serous Chorioretinopathy with Psychosocial Factors is Dependent on Its Phase and Subtype. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2018; 32(4): 281-9.
42. Lahousen T, Painold A, Luxenberger W et al. Psychological factors associated with acute and chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Nord J Psychiatry. 2016; 70(1): 24-30.
43. Liu B, Deng T, Zhang J. Risk factors for central serous chorioretinopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Retina. 2016; 36(1): 9-19.
44. Yannuzzi LA. Type A behavior and central serous chorioretinopathy. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1986; 84: 799-845.
45. Conrad R, Geiser F, Kleiman A et al. Temperament and character personality profile and illness-related stress in central serous chorioretinopathy. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014; 2014: 631687.
46. van Haalen FM, van Dijk EHC, Andela CD et al. Maladaptive personality traits, psychological morbidity and coping strategies in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy. Acta Ophthalmol. 2019; 97(4): e572-e579.
47. Sesar AP, Sesar A, Bucan K et al. Personality Traits, Stress, and Emotional Intelligence Associated with Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. Med Sci Monit. 2021; 27: e928677.
48. Chatziralli I, Kabanarou SA, Parikakis E et al. Risk Factors for Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: Multivariate Approach in a Case-Control Study. Curr Eye Res. 2017; 42(7): 1069-73.
49. Islam QU, Hanif MK, Tareen S. Frequency of Systemic Risk Factors in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2016; 26(8): 692-5.
50. Eom Y, Oh J, Kim SW et al. Systemic factors associated with central serous chorioretinopathy in Koreans. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2012; 26(4): 260-4.
51. Chen SN, Lian I, Chen YC et al. Increased incidence of peptic ulcer disease in central serous chorioretinopathy patients: a population- based retrospective cohort study. Retina. 2015; 35(2): 231-7.
52. Mansuetta CC, Mason JO 3rd, Swanner J et al. An association between central serous chorioretinopathy and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004; 137(6): 1096-100.
53. Mateo-Montoya A, Mauget-Faÿse M. Helicobacter pylori as a risk factor for central serous chorioretinopathy: Literature review. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2014; 5(3): 355-8.
54. Rahbani-Nobar MB, Javadzadeh A, Ghojazadeh L et al. The effect of Helicobacter pylori treatment on remission of idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy. Mol Vis. 2011; 17: 99-103.
55. Casella AM, Berbel RF, Bressanim GL et al. Helicobacter pylori as a potential target for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012; 67(9): 1047-52.
56. Zavoloka O, Bezditko P, Lahorzhevska I et al. Clinical efficiency of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the treatment of patients with acute central serous chorioretinopathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2016; 254(9): 1737-42.
57. Dang Y, Mu Y, Zhao M et al. The effect of eradicating Helicobacter pylori on idiopathic central serous chorioretinopathy patients. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2013; 9: 355-60.
58. Chung YR, Kim JW, Kim SW et al. Choroidal thickness in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy: Assessment of Haller and Sattler Layers. Retina. 2016; 36(9): 1652-7.
59. Hanumunthadu D, van Dijk EHC, Dumpala S et al. Evaluation of Choroidal Layer Thickness in Central Serous Chorioretinopathy. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2019; 14(2): 164-70.
60. Arora S, Pyare R, Sridharan P et al. Choroidal thickness evaluation of healthy eyes, central serous chorioretinopathy, and fellow eyes using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in Indian population. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2016; 64(10): 747-51.
61. Ersoz MG, Arf S, Hocaoglu M et al. Patient characteristics and risk factors for central serous chorioretinopathy: an analysis of 811 patients. Br J Ophthalmol. 2019; 103(6): 725-9.
62. Manayath GJ, Arora S, Parikh H et al. Is myopia a protective factor against central serous chorioretinopathy? Int J Ophthalmol. 2016; 9(2): 266-70.
63. Terao N, Koizumi H, Kojima K et al. Short axial length and hyperopic refractive error are risk factors of central serous chorioretinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2020; 104(9): 1260-5.
64. Oh JH, Oh J, Togloom A et al. Biometric characteristics of eyes with central serous chorioretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014; 55(3): 1502-8.