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For several years, prostate cancer has remained the most common malignancy in male patients in Poland. A large number of patients combined with rising costs of therapy translate into a significant socio-economic burden. In a clinical oncologist’s practice, we usually deal with patients with advanced prostate cancer. Taking into account the poorer prognosis in advanced disease, development of new therapeutic options as well we their adequate selection is of paramount importance. Enzalutamide is one of the second-generation androgen axis inhibitors, which has the ability to overcome resistance to androgen deprivation therapy by inhibiting the androgen-DNA signalling on several levels. Its efficacy and safety had been proven in numerous phase II and phase III clinical studies and it has been registered by regulatory authorities in the United States and European Union in the treatment of mCRPC, mCSPC and nmCRPC. In this article selected issues related to the treatment of prostate cancer are discussed, with particular emphasis on the role of enzalutamide (including its mechanism of action, indications, efficacy and safety).
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