Aerobiological studies – current state and future challenges Praca przeglądowa


Dorota Myszkowska


Aerobiology is the interdisciplinary science focused on the study of airborne organisms and biological materials, like pollen grains, fungal spores, bacteria, viruses, mycotoxins. The results of the aerobiological monitoring are practically employed in medicine, agriculture, beekeeping, meteorology, monument protection. The information of the current and predicted exposure is transmitted to patients and physicians through the electronic tools, applications, media, to compile the optimal therapy of respiratory diseases, especially pollen allergy. It is worth taking into account some confirmed phenomena to interpret the aerobiological data correctly: (i) many airborne particles occur seasonally and their amount and seasonal dynamics are more or less variable; (ii) threshold values for the airborne particles causing the threat for humans (e.g. for allergic individuals) are important, but the personal sensitivity must be also included; (iii) overlapping occurrence of different airborne particles, like pollen, spores, pollution makes clinical symptoms worsening; (iv) modern pollen and spores fall is affected in direct and indirect way by the climate changes, anthropogenic pollution, long range transport and the specific local environmental conditions. Currently the implementation of the automatic measurement systems and the analyses of allergen particles in the air are the main challenges for aerobiologists. Joined activity of this group of enthusiastic specialists of different interests is performed in frame of the multi centre networks and supported by the International Association for Aerobiology together with the regional.


Dane pobrania nie są jeszcze dostepne


Jak cytować
Myszkowska , D. (2020). Aerobiological studies – current state and future challenges. Alergoprofil, 16(1), 8-14.


1. Stach A, Smith M. Historia aerobiologii./History of aerobiology. In: Weryszko-Chmielewska E (ed). Aerobiologia. Wydawnictwo Akademii Rolniczej w Lublinie, Lublin 2007; 11-6.
2. Myszkowska D. Co można odkryć w powietrzu pod obiektywem mikroskopu? Alma Mater. 2011; 137-138: 22-3.
3. Emberlin J. Aerobiology, aerodynamics and pollen sampling. Adv Dermatol Allergol. 2003; 20(4): 196-9.
4. Burbach GJ, Heinzerling LM, Edenharter G et al. Pollen allergens and geographical factors. In: Akdis C, Agache I (ed). Global atlas of allergy. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Zurich 2014; 36-8.
5. Scheifinger H, Belmonte J, Buters J et al. Monitoring, modelling and forecasting of the pollen season. In: Sofiev M, Bergmann KC (ed). Allergenic Pollen: A Review of the Production, Release, Distribution and Health Impacts. Springer Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London 2013; 71-126.
6. Obtułowicz K, Myszkowska D, Stępalska D. The efficacy of symptomatic treatment of pollen allergy with regard to pollen concentration – introduction of a new coefficient. Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000; 12(3): 105-9.
7. Bousquet J, Schunemann HJ, Fonseca J et al. MACVIA-ARIA Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis (MASK-rhinitis): the new generation guideline implementation. Allergy. 2015; 70: 1372-92.
8. Pfaar O, Bastl K, Berger U et al. Defining pollen exposure times for clinical trials of allergen immunotherapy for pollen induced rhinoconjunctivitis – an EAACI Position Paper. Allergy. 2017; 72: 713-22.
9. Myszkowska D. Poaceae pollen in the air depending on the thermal conditions. Int J Biometeorol. 2014; 58: 975-86.
10. Grewling Ł, Sikoparija B, Skjøth CA et al. Variation in Artemisia pollen seasons in Central and Eastern Europe. Agric For Meteorol. 2012; 160: 48-59.
11. Grinn-Gofroń, Nowosad J, Bosiacka B et al. Airborne Alternaria and Cladosporium fungal spores in Europe: Forecasting possibilities and relationships with meteorological parameters. Sci Total Environ. 2019; 653: 938-46.
12. Myszkowska D, Majewska R. Pollen grains as allergenic environmental factors – new approach to the forecasting of the pollen concentration during the season. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014; 21(4): 681-8.
13. Šikoparija B, Marko O, Panić M et al. How to prepare a pollen calendar for forecasting daily pollen concentrations of Ambrosia, Betula and Poaceae? Aerobiologia. 2018; 4: 203-17.
14. Kmenta M, Bastl K, Jӓger S et al. Development of personal pollen information-the next generation of pollen information and a step forward for hay fever sufferers. Int J Biometeorol. 2014; 58: 1721-6.
15. Akdis CA, Hellings PW (ed). Global atlas of allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2015.
16. Ring J, Krämer U, Schäfer T et al. Why are allergies increasing? Curr Opin Immunol. 2001; 13: 701-8.
17. EEA Report. Air quality in Europe. 2019. No 10/2019.
18. Behrendt H, Becker WM. Localization, release and bioavailability of pollen allergens: the influence of environmental factors. Curr Opin Immunol. 2001; 13: 709-15.
19. Samoliński B, Sybilski AJ, Raciborski F et al. Prevalence of rhinitis in polish population according to the ECAP (Epidemiology of Allergic Disorders in Poland) study. Otolaryngol Pol. 2009; 63(4): 324-30.
20. Porebski G, Woźniak M, Czarnobilska E. Residential proximity to major roadways is associated with increased prevalence of allergic respiratory symptoms in children. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2014; 21(4): 760-6.
21. Chehregani A, Kouhkan F. Diesel exhaust particles and allergenicity of pollen grains of Lilium martagon. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2008; 69: 568e573.
22. Lu S, Ren J, Hao X et al. Characterisation of proteins expression of Platanus pollen following exposure to gaseous pollutants and vehicle exhaust particles. Aerobiologia. 2014; 30: 281-91.
23. Schiavoni G, D’Amato G, Afferni C. The dangerous liaison between pollens and pollution in respiratory allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017; 118: 269e275.
24. Senechal H, Visez N, Charpin D et al. A review of the effects of major atmospheric pollutants on pollen grains, pollen content and allergenicity. The Scientific World Journal 2015; ID 940243.
25. Rogers CA, Wayne PM, Macklin EA et al. Interaction of the onset of spring and elevated atmospheric CO2 on ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) pollen production. Environ Health Perspect. 2006; 114(6): 865-9.
26. Storkey J, Stratonovitch P, Chapman DS et al. Process-Based Approach to Predicting the Effect of Climate Change on the Distribution of an Invasive Allergenic Plant in Europe. Plos One. 2014.
27. Ziska LH, Makra L, Harry SK et al. Temperature-related changes in airborne allergenic pollen abundance and seasonality across the northern hemisphere: a retrospective data analysis. Lancet Planetary Health. 2019; 3: e124-31.
28. Ziello C, Sparks TH, Estrella N et al. Changes to Airborne Pollen Counts across Europe. Plos One. 2012; 7(4): e34076.
29. Stępalska D, Myszkowska D, Leśkiewicz K et al. Co-occurrence of Artemisia and Ambrosia pollen seasons against the background of the synoptic situations in Poland. Int J Biometeorol. 2017; 61: 747-60.
30. Šikoparija B, Skjoth CA, Kűbler A et al. A mechanism for long distance transport of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain. Agric For Meteorol. 2013; 180: 112-7.
31. Grewling Ł, Bogawski P, Jenerowicz D et al. Mesoscale atmospheric transport of ragweed pollen allergens from infected to uninfected areas. Int J Biometeorol. 2016; 60: 1493-1500.
32. Mucci N, Gianfranceschi G, Cianfanelli C et al. Can air microbiota be a novel marker for public health? A sampling model and preliminary data from different environments. Aerobiologia. 2020; 36: 71-5.
33. Albertini R, Colucci ME, Turchi S et al. The management of air contamination control in operating theaters: the experience of the Parma University Hospital (IT). Aerobiologia. 2020; 36: 119-23.
34. Myszkowska D, Kostrzon M, Dyga W et al. Bioaerosol of salt chambers in the ‘Wieliczka’ Salt Mine, Poland. Aerobiologia. 2019; 35: 297-311.
35. Galán C, Smith M, Thibaudon M et al. Pollen monitoring: minimum requirements and reproducibility of analysis. Aerobiologia. 2014; 30(4): 385-95.
36. Oteros J, Pusch G, Weichenmeier I et al. Automatic and online pollen monitoring. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2015; 167: 158-66.
37. Crouzy B, Stella M, Konzelmann T et al. All-optical automatic pollen identification: towards an operational system. Atmos Environ. 2016; 140: 202-12.
38. Šaulinene I, Šukiene L, Daunys G et al. Automatic pollen recognition with the Rapid-E particle counter: the first-level procedure, experience and next steps. Atmos Meas Tech. 2019; 12: 3435-52.
39. Buters J, Prank M, Sofiev M et al. Variation of the group 5 grass pollen allergen content of airborne pollen in relation to geographic location and time in season. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015; 136(1): 87-95.e6.
40. Grewling Ł, Bogawski P, Kostecki Ł et al. Atmospheric exposure to the major Artemisia pollen allergen (Art v 1): Seasonality, impact of weather, and clinical implications. Sci Total Environ. 2020; 713: 136611.
41. Buters J, Antunes C, Galveias A et al. Pollen and spore monitoring in the world. Clin Transl Allergy. 2018, 8: 9.
42. Galan C, Ariatti A, Bonini M et al. Recommended terminology for aerobiological studies. Aerobiologia. 2017; 33: 293-5.
43. Sikoparija B, Galán C, Smith M. Pollen-monitoring: between analyst proficiency testing. Aerobiologia. 2017; 33: 191-9.